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Welcome to the site, Garrym.

Sorry to hear about the loss of your job. Although there are some differences in style depending on which publication you are writing for, I'd say the errors your boss pointed out would be considered errors no matter which style guide was being used.

Apparently the forum's software does not get along very well with MS Internet Explorer 4. Have you tried using a browser such as Fire Fox? Here is a reformatted version of your post:

Dear teachers,

Until recently I had a job answering simple questions, but have lost it due to my poor spelling and grammar. Below are the answers concerned along with my bosses comments on the errors.

I would like to know if all of my boss' critisms are 100% valid. I feel that some of the errors are a matter of style preference, rather than them actually breaking gramatical rules. If I am correct, I can ask to be reinstated. If I am wrong, I would like to understand why what I have done is wrong, so I can learn for the future.

Your help with this matter would be deeply appreciated.

1. Gary Lineker is the last player to win PFA player of the year, he won it in 1985-86. The only other Everton player to win it is Peter Reid in 1984-85.
There should be a full stop and a new sentence started after player of the year

2. Brian De Palma directed Casualties of War, starring Sean Penn, Don Harvey and Michael J Fox. De Palma also directed, Carlito's Way and Wise Guys.
No need for comma after directed

3.The projects for this years Cooper Union home test vary widely. The deadlines for applicants have all passed, apart for Engineering transfer applicants.
Year’s Cooper and apart from.

4. Chateau de la Tour Clos Vougeot (2002) ,Pinot Noir can be brought online from £65, not including postage. It should be drunk between 2012 and 2025.
No need for comma after 2002

5. Boron, has the chemical symbol B and atomic number 5. Boron fibre is used to reinforce the fuselages of some fighter planes, like the B1 bomber.
No need for the comma after Boron.

6. Dart player James Wade is 25, he was born on 6 Apr 1983 in Aldershot. He is currently dating Soccer AM presenter, Helen Chamberlain.
Darts player and there should be a full stop and a new sentence after 25
Here are my comments on the errors your boss pointed out:

1. The error in this sentence is known as a "comma splice" or a "comma fault". You have improperly connected two independent clauses with a comma. Your boss's suggestion is one way to correct the mistake. I'd say your boss would also have accepted this, for example: "... player of the year, which he won in ... "

2. You improperly separated the direct object from the verb. What you did there is the equivalent of writing something like this (which is equally incorrect):
"I got, your letter."
Why would you want to separate the direct object from the verb in such a sentence?

3. "This year's" must be possessive in sentence 3. Without the apostrophe, the word "years" is simply plural.
"Apart from" is a standard collocation meaning "except", and "apart for" is not. I can't recall ever having heard anyone use "apart for" that way. Is "apart for" perhaps a locally used slang usage? Whatever the case may be, I would not consider your use of "apart for" to be standard by any means.

4. In this sentence, the words [Chateau de la Tour Clos Vougeot (2002)] function as a single adjective. The expression modifies "Pinot Noir".
Compare these: "a Hewlett Packard Desk Jet" --> "a new Desk Jet" --> "a new printer".
In those examples, the words "Hewlett Packard" function in exactly the same way as the word "new", and "Desk Jet" has the same function as "printer". "New" is an adjective and "printer" is a noun.

5. You have improperly separated the subject from the verb.
Would you ever write something like the following?
"John, works here."
The comma is clearly an error.

6. James Wade is someone who plays a game called "darts". He does not play a game called "dart".
The period/full stop is necessary after "25" for exactly the same reason mentioned in sentence 1. The error is known as a "comma splice".

As regards spelling, you've got a few typos in your post that a spell checker would definitely have pointed out to you. Do you use a spell checker?